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Ulrich Zwingli: How his Works influenced the Church Today

Ulrich Zwingli: How his Works influenced the Church Today

Ulrich Zwingli: Printed by Hans Asper


Ulrich Zwingli was a highly regarded Swiss Protestant leader during the era of the church reformation and he actually played a significant role in the breaking up of the Roman Catholic Church thus setting up the protestant wing. He is in fact ranked in the third place after Martin Luther and John Calvin with regard to the protestant reformers. Initially Zwingli was a Roman Catholic cleric in the state of Zurich, Swiss city and his main oppositions was against the selling of indulgences, as well as the manner in which the Catholic Church was pardoning those souls in the purgatory. Therefore for being a protestant reformer he shaped views in relic worship as well as the Lord’s Supper in the sixteenth century. His work later then impacted the church today (Nichols 2007).

Zwingli was apparent born at Wildhaus Switzerland on January 1, 1484 to parents Margret and Ulrich Zwingli. For once his family background influenced him to pursue theology matters as for instance his father was an influential principal magistrate in his home village, while his brother named Bartholomew was also the community priest. Moreover, his brother named Johannes was an abbot in the Benedictine abbey found in Fischingen whereas his probable uncle, Bunzli was also an abbot in the Old St. John’s church near Wildhaus (Hambrick & Charles 1984).

He received his early on schooling at Wesen under the supervision of this uncle, who by then was learning at Basle as well as coaching in the institution of St. Theodore, which Zwingli hereafter attended. For higher education he attended the universities of Berne, Vienna, and Basel. These institutions where actually known as amongst some of the outmost humanists of Switerzerland. Zwingli was exceedingly knowledgeable in the conventional studies of ancient classics, physics, astronomy, music, and poetry, acquiring his degree in the year 1504 also Master of Arts at the University of Basel in 1506. It was, astoundingly, along with his total emersion in the philosophies of humanism at institution, that he met humanities who would eventually sow extensive seeds of activism and reformation in his mentality (Green 1976).

Through the influence of Thomas Wyttenbach, he was encouraged to undertake serious theology,   and this saw him back to studies and thereafter receiving the degree of Master of Theology. Soon after he got that he was selected to be a priest of Glarus. Therefore Zwingli had lived a normal life, and what really influenced much of his life in the church were the humanistic features he came across in the several institutions he attended (Potter 1975).

After being ordained into priesthood in 1506 at the town of Glarus, and thereafter started studying Erasmus writings and these literatures are somehow credited to have activated the reformations instincts in Zwingli. Subsequent to relocating to Einsiedeln, he came close to the evilest intrinsic practices rooted in the Roman Catholic for instance like buying of indulgences. He then strongly started condemning and preaching against them, and he also powerfully opposed the church’s mercenary service, which was a practice that appeared particularly to make the church wealthy while murdering Swiss youngsters as well as leading others to an existence of moral crumble in the expression of constant conflict.

It was after being called on to the cathedral at Zurich to preach that’s when he started to deeply explain the bible and how people ought to stick to the exact teachings of the holy book rather than queer explanations. That’s when his humanism emerged where he didn’t stick to the doctrinal innovation of his fellow clergy and he also went further to speak out against an indulgence preacher. The alteration of Zwingli the politician and Humanist into an educator of the new devotion was greatly facilitated by the political and ecclesiastical conditions of the public authorities and people at Zurich city as well as Switzerland in general (Green 1976).

The general public displayed immense religious enthusiasm externally however it was not enough to counteract the molder of morals, and this resulted mainly from the church’s mercenary army system. The clerical to a great level neglected their responsibilities; where a lot of them lived in states of concubinage, and attached in the shameless chase of spiritual pretends, hence damaging their reputation. While in Zurich, Zwingli became outspoken concerning the deeds of the Pope who was much into politics and this made him denounce the mercenary system and also made him publicly relinquish his papal retirement fund. One significant achievement into his revolts was the refusal of Zurich canton into entering any alliances with France (Ulrich Zwingli (n.d.)).

Even though the seeds of transformation had by then been planted, Zwingli was not fully in the Lords side but a 1520 plague completely reformed to total obedience of the truthful teachings of scripture. Throughout Switzerland tremendous reforms were brought about by the petition to the magistrate of the metropolis who called for a ponder between Roman Catholic reformers and theologians. He who protected his position mainly effectively and roughly always it happened that the reformers who generally based their opinion solely on the scripture or rather the bible, was awarded the freedom to make, or on the other hand not make, the doubtful reform. Zwingli was really thorough in his arguments as he based them on humanism thus this saw him win his first of numerous successful debates he undertook. Several of the reforms instigated by his debates included the abandonment of Lent, replacement of the mass, declaration of clerical celibacy to be umbilical; moreover the churches were disengaged from the papacy which brought out the protestant factions (Hambrick & Charles 1984).

Owing to his achievement as a politician, Zwingli attained much reputation as well as importance elevated to higher heights. He came out as a strong sponsor of numerous religious innovations, and his initial reformatory work called “Vom Erkiesen und Fryheit der Spysen”, came into the limelight booksellers Froschauer together with his acquaintances openly defied the religious law touching fasting, and a debate relating to fasts broke out. Zwingli affirmed the fasting provisions which he termed them as mere human orders which were not in accord with the Holy Writ; and the scriptures found in the Bible were the sole supply of faith, as he emphasized in his second literature work, “Archeteles”. During the designation the Bishop of Constance that is when he pressured the town to conform to the full scripture’s teachings (Potter 1975).

Relic worship

A relic is described by the Catholic Church as Something connected with or belonging to Our Lord or even the Saints, which include either a piece of clothing they wore or a part of their bodies. This practice by the church has been active since time immemorial and it is even adept that everywhere a chapel is opened, or a sanctuary consecrated, it usually cannot be comprehensively complete exclusive of some artifact or additional of she-saint or he-saint to give holiness to it. The relic of the saints together with the cross and decayed bones of the church martyrs form a great element of the possessions of the Church. The grossest pretenses have been practiced in view to such relics; and most driveling stories have been narrated of their wonderfully working powers, along with that too by clergies of high name in the account of Christendom.

Zwingli was more outspoken on the issue of the Catholic Church practicing relic worship where he termed it as worshiping idols and items which were against the teachings of the bible. Which followed was a religious disputation basically fighting against the practical institution of the state Catholic Church, the excessive adoration of the saints, the use of images which hug throughout the worship halls, the kneeling before Jesus or Mary’s portraits, as well as placement of saints’ bones in alters. No notable delegate of the prehistoric Faith was in attendance but nevertheless Zwingli urged the acceptance of his church doctrines so fruitfully which made even his friends warn him against fighting for the removal of the ancient beliefs and customs as well as their usage in church proceedings. Actually the reforms came into effect Zurich in 1525 (Nichols 2007).

It was about the Easter festive in 1524 when pilgrimages and indulgences were abolished, and in addition Extreme Unction and the sacraments of Penance were rejected, as well as organs, alters, relics, statues, and pictures destroyed, in spite of of their artistic significance. Also sacred vessels of enormous worth, such as monstrances and chalices were all melted into currency. The Catholic Church possessions were apprehended by the State, which mostly gained the majority by the repression of the church monasteries; for instance the Fraumünster Abbey, which was founded in 853, was willingly surrendered to the worldly authorities by the very last abbess (Ulrich Zwingli (n.d.)).

The church culture of Celibacy was eventually rejected as opposing to Holy Writ, which saw nuns and monks getting married. Since the early year of 1522 Zwingli together with ten additional ecclesiastics gathered at Einsiedeln and tackled a lobby to the Bishop of Constance with regard to allowing priests the freedom to enjoy the marriage rite. They made declarations on the sceneries which prevailed pertaining the shameful and disgraceful life which the clergy till the moment led with the opposite humanity, thus giving dreadful scandal to everybody. Through the petitions celibacy was dropped and this opened the gates for numerous priests throughout Zurich to enter the marriage sacrament. What followed was a fresh marriage law which regulated all the innovations and also the Mass ritual of the Catholic Church fell under scrutiny and was abolished thus introducing the memorial church service of the Last Supper in its place.


Zwingli’s views and their impact however did not achieve much force like Luther’s and Calvin’s due to the geographic locality of Zurich city. Nevertheless majority of his views saw their way to the university levels and due to their influence they received some publications for instance the generally recognized sixty-seven articles. He is renowned as a reformer who influenced the establishment of Protestantism to the nation of Switzerland. He largely changed the religious orientation with regard to the Swiss society, thus actually without him the country would at present still been subjugated by the Catholic doctrine, hence religious pluralism grew in Switzerland. His theocracy and views paved the way for a refinement of the rectification in Switzerland which opened for numerous to form the Church of United Methodist. Overall his impact to the Christian religion through the reformation brought out theological thinking throughout the country cantons and his works and views on the papal, relic worship, lord supper, and baptism paved way for contemporary churches all over the world (Potter 1975).



Green, Lowell C. (1976)“What Was The True Issue At Marburg In 1529.”Springfielder 40.2 102-106. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials.Web. 16 Nov. 2012

Gordon, Bruce.(2002) The Swiss Reformation. Manchester, UK; New York: Manchester UP, Print

Hambrick-Stowe, Charles E. (1984)”Ulrich Zwingli : The Life and Works of One Man” Christian Century 101.11 335-339. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials.Web.  16 Nov. 2012.

Nichols, Stephen J. (2007) The Reformation: How a Monk and a Mallet Changed the World. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, Print

Potter, G R. (1975) “Zwinglian Synods InEastern Switzerland, 1529-1531.”Journal Of Ecclesiastical History 26.3 261-266. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials.Web. 16 Nov. 2012

“Ulrich Zwingli: Prophet of the Modern World. (n.d.)” Ulrich Zwingli: Prophet of the Modern World.  Web. 16 nov. 2012.

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Posted by on November 27, 2014 in Essay & Research Writing


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Hamlet: Theme of Sickness and Corruption

The theme of sickness and corruption. Trace the imagery of disease and contamination that runs throughout the play, and relate it to the play as a whole. What is Shakespeare trying to accomplish with this imagery? What is “rotten in the state of Denmark,” and how can the mess be cleaned up?

Hamlet essay

Madness is basically a health condition which is actually difficult to recognize its authenticity or rather if it’s factual or not. In the Hamlet play by William Shakespeare, the actor Hamlet is seen to put on a jaunt character after encountering his father’s ghost and being asked to take revenge of his father’s demise. He is therefore seen to take up this kind of character so that he carries the mission in a less noticeable manner and this reflects why in the entire play his actions are frequently inexplicable. William Shakespeare seemingly leaves the addressees to come to a decision on whether the character Hamlet is really mad or he is not. All through the tragic play, Hamlet’s doubtful madness is discovered through his existent madness, contrived actions, as well as the responses of other people towards his insanity.

In quite a number of occasions, Hamlet’s insanity is noted to be real. For instance, Hamlet utters as he moves across the arras and apparently murders Polonius, in this incident; he is seen to think that Polonius is a rat, “How now! a rat? Dead for a ducat, dead!” (HAMLET 3.4, 25). His insanity is no longer pretense when he fails to kill Claudius his father’s murderer and as an alternative stabs Polonius, who is the mistaken individual, in such like hasty manner. Additionally, Hamlet is seen to kill without even view of what really he is carrying out, and this phenomenon highly exhibits his failure of rationale for putting on an adventure character on. On the other hand, Hamlet may perhaps have suffered madness before even putting the jaunt temperament on. As apparent in the start of the tragic play, Marcellus together with Horatio are seen as trying to clutch Hamlet back, although he rebels. He thereafter goes on and utters, “Still am I called. Unhand me, gentlemen–/ Heaven, I’ll make a ghost of him that lets me!/ I say, away” (Hamlet’s Antic Disposition 1.4, 84-86). Here, hamlet places himself at jeopardy and it appears that he does not reflect on the outcomes of the same. With the intention to stride towards the spirit and with no deliberation, his manners is full of rash and thoughtless, characters which can be associated to madness. His lunacy is further clear when he puts forward to his craving rather than reckoning through intimidating those who hamper him from making appearances to the ghost in accordance with his wishes.

Seemingly, in the play, there are other instances which reveal that Hamlet’s madness is somehow feigned. A case in point is when Hamlet interacts with Polonius. He converses that, “Slanders, sir; for the satirical rogue says here/ that old men have gray beards; that their faces are wrinkled; their eyes purging thick amber and/ plum-tree gum” (Hamlet: Entire Play 2.2, 197-200). He is seen to employ his feigned insanity to his benefit so as to affront Polonius in some way by cunningly crafting the topic of his manuscript towards the unequivocal depiction of Polonius. His wits illustrate clearly that in real sense he has is not missing his rationale and therefore isn’t mad. Further compelling evidence depicting the pretense of Hamlet’s lunacy is when he is seen talking with his father’s ghost as Gertrude is nearby. Since she is unable to spot the spirit, she thus says to Hamlet, “Nothing at all, yet all that is I see… No, nothing but ourselves… this is the very coinage of your brain…” (Hamlet: Entire Play 3.4, 134-139). She thinks Hamlet is actually nutty, as she perceives him chatting to an empty space, hence thinking that he is exactly chatting to himself. Nevertheless, the spectators recognize that Hamlet in fact isn’t in fact lunatic given that they notice he is really conversing to his father’s spirit in the ensuing play.

Hamlet’s madness causes other people to reaction towards it. Immediately after Polonius is told about Hamlet’s insanity, he goes to Claudius the king and informs him to be the main reason behind Hamlet’s lunacy. Gertrude his mother has reasoning behind his son’s madness which she points out that it emanates from the loss of his father coupled with her speedy marriage to Claudius who is actually his Hamlet’s uncle. These different views concerning Hamlet’s lunacy seem to assume that his madness is harmless but things change when he kills Polonius. This makes King Claudius think twice regarding Hamlet’s madness and somewhat compare it to foul disease, “We would not understand what was most fit,/ But, like the owner of a foul disease” (Hamlet: Entire Play 4.1, 20-21). Therefore his madness helped him fend off his real intention which was to revenge his father’s death through killing the king Claudius.

It’s really hard to determine whether Hamlet was in fact mad but through his actions its true to point out that he portraits dual-ship  in the character of madness as some incidents reveal that he had a bit of lunacy in him while in others its evident that he was putting on pretense. Hamlet is seen to be under numerous psychological pressures for instance from the death of his father, his mother rapidity in marrying his uncle Claudius, as well as knowing the murderer of his father. This could have instigated mental illness thus depicting mad-like characters (Hamlet’s Antic Disposition, (n.p.)).



“Hamlet’s Antic Disposition – Is Hamlet’s Madness Real?.” Shakespeare Online. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2012.

“Hamlet: Entire Play .” The Complete Works of William Shakespeare . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2012.

“HAMLET, Act 3, Scene 4.” Shakespeare Navigators. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2012.

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Posted by on November 27, 2014 in Essay & Research Writing


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Sean Francis Lemass: Review his life and his role in Irish History. (The improvements Ireland had with him)

Sean Francis Lemass: Review his life and his role in Irish History. (The improvements Ireland had with him)

Sean Francis Lemass

Sean lemass who was also called Sean Francis Lemass was an Ireland national born on July 15, 1899 in the city of Dublin. His family consisted of seven children and he was the second born to parents’ john and Frances Lemass. Sean received his education in Dublin through the Christian brothers. Interestingly the Irish popular comedian jimmy O’Dea was even his classmate and they went to the extent of becoming longtime friends to the point of jimmy becoming the best man in lemass’s wedding (Irishrollcall (n.p.)) .

Sean joined the volunteers in January 1915 although his age was only 15 by then. Noel who was Sean’s brother and him both became members of the garrison in 1916, which was located at the GPO. Lemass was released due to is young age after the rising ended (Irishrollcall (n.p.)).

Sean participated during the fight for Ireland’s independence and he was interned in Ballykinlar, Co down in 1920. Luckily, for him he got released after the signing of 1921 Treaty.  During the civil war, Sean joined the faction of the Anti-Treaty and he was termed as the second in authority to Rory O Connor in the region of four courts. He succeeded in escaping from this region although the Free State troops had severely bombarded the place and was many in number. Lack was not on his side as he was captured later and confined again. In 1922 he got elected in the lower house of parliament of Ireland The year that followed saw him mourn the death of his brother Noel although he was in jail but later released on the grounds of compassion. In 1924, he entered into marriage with Kathleen Hughes and was later blessed with four children, Peggy, Noel, Sheila, and Maureen (Irishrollcall (n.p.)).

Lemass supported abstentionist policy, which had been formed by Eamon de Valera, and he later amongst others founded the Fianna fail party. Together with Gerry Boland, they are credited to have built that party all over Ireland and it’s still a force to reckon with up to date. In 1928, he stated Fianna Fail to be “a slightly constitutional party”.

Lemass had great interests in industry and economics and this saw him become the minister for industry and commerce in 1932 after Fianna Fail rising to power. He truly believed in self-sufficiency and was strongly advocating for protectionism. He dealt with matters from the practical point of view and this saw him set up the sugar company, Aer Lingus, and the ESB (Irishrollcall (n.p.)).

Outbreak of the Second World War in 1939 saw Sean being granted the ministry for supplies with the duty of rationing and in 1945 he become the Tánaiste succeeding the former Tánaiste Sean T O’Kelly. Sean remained as the supplies minister until the 1948 elections where Fianna Fail party was defeated. While occupying the Opposition, he held a position of the managing director in the Irish press newspaper. In 1951 elections, Lemass sprung back to power and he was awarded the same ministry of industry and commerce. This time round, he was not able to deal with the country’s economic stagnation since de Valera continued to be conservative and uniformed on the country’s economic issues (Irishrollcall (n.p.)).

In June 1959, Lemass became Ireland’s prime minister and his elected president was de Valera. During that time, he had spotted the economic abilities of TK Whitaker who was the then secretary to the department of finance. This secretary had produced a document entitled ‘Economic Development’ and it had formed the foundation for the first Economic Expansion programme in 1958. Lemass’s government prioritized this programme and this formed the limelight and first steps for Ireland towards its economic improvement (Moody and Martin pg 283).

By this time, it was vivid that Lemass had done away with the ideology of protectionism and he joined EEC in 1961. By 1963 the rate of emigration and unemployment had dropped significantly all over the country except in the regions of western seaboard (Irishrollcall).

Then came the 1965 elections, which saw him being re-elected again as the country’s Prime Minister (Taoiseach). This time round, he further drove off traditional affiliations. In 1965, there occurred a historic meeting between the then Northern Prime Minister Terence O’Neill and Lemass. This new co-operation saw the two governments concentrate much on important economic issues like trade, agriculture, and tourism and most importantly a cordial relationship between the North and South emerged (Moody and Martin pg 284).

Eventually Sean lemass on November 10th, 1966 made it public to retire from politics and Jack Lynch succeeded him. Sadly, he died in 11th may 1971 and was awarded a state burial (Moody and Martin pg 430).

Sean lemass was a key player in transforming the Irish Economy from an era of protectionism to an economy, which was interdependent to other countries economies. At this time several groups like the employer’s groups, farmers ‘organizations and trade unions made great influence to policy making hence making the government adopt a corporatist style while undertaking a country wide policy making (Murphy pg 1).

During this time, Lemass facilitated a massive evolution in the ways of public policy formulations driving them into sets of three party arrangements, which were unconcealed and conscious. In addition, relations between the government and the upcoming interest groups matured gradually in terms of policy domains. Lemass formalized these interest groups, which made them operate freely in the country in terms of policymaking hence playing an important role in the country’s process of long term planning of policies. The representatives of these interest groups worked strenuously in order to promote the sectional interests of their members hence these groups took impartial and long term prospects concerning their country’s future economic expectations (Murphy pg 1).

Lemass improvements were both felt while he was in the government and in the opposition. He definitely pointed out the importance of ideological changes to the diverse economic bodies in the political arena of Ireland, which could help in formulating the country’s economic policies. Therefore, during his tenure in office (1957-1961) he ensured that his government lay down definite agendas, which could facilitate the overall development of the country’s economy as early as 1960s. Ireland moved from agriculture driven economy to industrialization due to export trade and this led to the improvement of economic co-operation of Ireland and its Europe counterparts. A big achievement was felt throughout the nation as formulation of economic policies took an ideological turn hence giving way to social democracy. Corporation between all key players in the economy was initiated making the process of decision making to be a collective responsibility (Murphy pg 1).

Anyone who disagrees with the above achievements of Sean Lemass and his role in the economic improvements witnessed in Ireland during his reign would be making a big mistake as Sean lemass is internationally considered to be the greatest political leader in Ireland. I would tell that person to again and again read all sources available in the world as history says it all that Lemass is honored to have laid the basis foundations towards economic success in modern Ireland.  He came up with economic development programmes (Moody and Martin pg 283) which facilitated the creation of the Irish sipping industry, Aer Lingus, and Bord Na Mona. He tirelessly worked in the expansion of the sugar company, countrywide supply of electricity, and tourist industry. He was termed as a man of action and is known to have facilitated the application of Ireland to enter EEC so as to enjoy the privileges of the European society and enlarge their trade market (Irishrollcall (n.p.)). Even I would go a mile further to advice that person to go to Ireland and obtain first hand information concerning the achievements of Sean Lemass to the people who were alive by then.



Work cited

Moody, Theodore William, and Martin, X. Francis. The course of Irish history. 4th ed., rev. and enl. ed. Lanham, Md.: Published in association with Radio Telefís Éireann by Roberts Rinehart Publishers :, 2001. Print.


Murphy, Gary. “Towards a corporate state? Sean Lemass and the realignment of interest groups in the policy process 1948 – 1964.” DCU Business School. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 May 2012. <


“SEAN LEMASS | Irishrollcall.”Irishrollcall. N.p., 4 July 2010. Web. 5 May 2012. <;.

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Posted by on November 11, 2014 in Essay & Research Writing


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